BS in Optics & Optometry

The “Optics and Optometry” program prepares students to become primary eye care professionals by exposing them to the theoretical foundations and practical skills involved in the various disciplines of opticianry and optometry. 

Optics and Optometry is a science which deals with the structure and function of the human eye and the visual system, especially in relation to visual, optical symptoms and refractive errors and their correction primarily by optical devices.

An Optician-Optometrist is a primary eye care professional, trained to examine, detect and correct the refractive errors by spectacles, contact lenses, and low vision devices. The optician-optometrist can perform vision therapy eye exercises to patients complaining of visual symptoms as per referral by an ophthalmologist. 

Importance of Optics and Optometry practice has grown with availability of new ophthalmic modes of treatment and optical products manufactured by latest technology.

The Department of “Optics and Optometry” offers a program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science (BS) in “Optics and Optometry” followed by the degree of University Diploma (UD) in “Optics and Optometry” The program is designed to provide in-depth understanding of the most recent advances and applications in ophthalmic optics, which mainly includes assessment, fabrication and fitting of visual devices. 

The BS in “Optics and Optometry” allows the graduate to conceive, realize, deliver and control all types of visual devices designed to correct the refractive errors. Holders of a BS in Optics and Optometry become Opticians. 

 

 
 
TOTAL REQUIRED CREDITS FOR GRADUATION (105 credits)
GENERAL GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS (15 credits)
CODE DESCRIPTION PREREQUISITE CR.
CSI 200 Computer Literacy ENG 001
3
ENG 201 Composition & Rhetoric I ENG 200
3
ENG 202 Composition & Rhetoric II ENG 201
3
ENG 205 English Communication Skills ENG 202
3
HMS 201 Active Learning & Research Methodology ENG 001
3
HMS 301 Western Civilization ENG 201
3
FREE LIBERAL ARTS ELECTIVES (9 credits)
To be selected from the department of Social Sciences and Humanities
GENERAL SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS (25 credits)
CODE DESCRIPTION PREREQUISITE CR.
ACC 201 Principles Of Accounting I ENG 001
3
BIO210H Cells & Molecules ENG 001
3
BIO 213 Introduction To Physiology ENG 001
3
BIO213L Introduction To Physiology Laboratory Co. BIO 213
1
BIO220H Cytology & Histology ENG 001
3
BIO 310 Introduction To Microbiology BIO210H
3
BIO 420 General Pathology BIO 213 & BIO 220H
3
CHE 200 Introduction to Chemistry ENG 001
3
CHE 301 Organic Chemistry for Health Sciences CHE 200
3
OPTICS & OPTOMETRY MAJOR REQUIREMENTS
CODE DESCRIPTION PREREQUISITE CR.
OPT 201 Optics I ENG 001
3
OPT 210 Ocular Anatomy ENG 001
3
OPT 215 Ocular Physiology ENG 001
3
OPT 222 Technology of Ophthalmic Lenses I OPT 210, Co. OPT222L
3
OPT222L Dispensing Laboratory I Co. OPT 222
2
OPT 298 Practicum I: Internship in Optics showrooms and workshops NONE
1
OPT 302 Optics II OPT 201 & OPT 301
3
OPT 322 Technology OF Ophthalmic Lenses II OPT 222, Co. OPT322L
3
OPT322L Dispensing Laboratory II OPT222L & OPT 222, Co. OPT 322
2
OPT 330 Introduction To Contact Lenses OPT 210
3
OPT 340 Contact Lenses OPT 210 & OPT 330
3
OPT340L Contact Lenses Laboratory OPT 210 & OPT 330
1
OPT 350 Introduction To Optometry OPT 210
3
OPT 398 Practicum II: Internship in Contact Lenses workshops NONE
1
OPT 410 Optical Instrumentation OPT 201 & OPT 302
3
OPT410L Optical Instrumentation Laboratory OPT 201 & OPT 302
1
OPT 422 Technology of Ophthalmic Lenses III OPT 322 OR OPT 320, Co.422L
3
OPT422L Dispensing Laboratory III OPT322L & OPT 322, Co. OPT 422
2
OPT 450 Optometry OPT 350
3
OPT450L Optometry Laboratory OPT 350
1
OPT 462 Introduction to Physiological Optics OPT 210 & OPT 215
3
OPT 472 Physiological Optics OPT 462
3
OPT 480 Binocular Vision OPT 350 & OPT 450
3
OPT 490 Process of Research ENG 202
1
OPT 492 Special Topics in Optics & Optometry Senior Standing
1
OPT 498 Practicum III: Internship in Ophtalomology Centers Senior Standing
1
Course Descriptions
CSI 200
Computer Literacy
This course is an introductory Non-Technical survey of Computer Systems and a study of the social impact of computers. Topics include introduction to the Hardware components of a computer system, input and output devices, storage devices, communications and connectivity, Internet, security, information systems and deep exposition to software applications such as text editors, spreadsheet, and presentation software.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
ENG 201
Composition & Rhetoric I
This is the students' first major encounter with critical thinking, reading, and writing. Students are exposed to themes from different disciplines and are expected to discuss them, read and write about them. The essay of all its types is the writing format dealt with in the first half. A research paper, 5-10 pages in length, follows in the second half.
Prerequisite: ENG 200
ENG 202
Composition & Rhetoric II
In this course, students are expected to engage in deep critical thinking and to construct written arguments in which they decide on a controversial issue. They are helped to think of argument in terms of having an opinion, voicing it persuasively, and supporting it adequately. Hence, they will be analyzing debatable issues appearing in writing and will be introduced to the elements and structure of argument, including the Toulmin model, the rhetorical situation, the traditional categories of claims, the types of proof, logical fallacies and the Rogerian argument. Reading, critical thinking, and writing are taught as integrated processes. There will be essays for analysis, as well as essay topics for development.
Prerequisite: ENG 201
ENG 205
English Communication Skills
Students' communication competence is enhanced by learning the techniques and strategies of public speaking. No other skills are so closely tied to a student's professional success as communication skills. Using what they have learned in other English language courses, students practice and communicate, guided by the fundamental principles of public speaking, and provided with a forum for applying these principles, through a variety of instructional strategies - discussion, class workshops.
Prerequisite: ENG 202
HMS 201
Active Learning & Research Methodology

This is an introductory course that aims at bridging the gap between school and college and develops the student's skills in three areas related to active learning and research methodology. In the first area, the student is introduced to the university's rules and regulations and general guidelines. In the second area, the student hones his/her study skills, namely, developing schedules, improving concentration, developing time-saving test-taking strategies, taking good notes, improving listening and reading skills, and applying strategies to avoid test anxiety. In the third area, the student is introduced to research, armed with the theory, methodology, and techniques of the research process, starting with conceptualization and ending with report writing.

Prerequisite: ENG 001
HMS 301
Western Civilization
This course consists of readings and discussion of the classic great books of Western Civilization, focusing on literary, philosophical, and historical works from ancient Greece and Rome. Readings will be selected from authors such as Homer, Virgil, Ovid, Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy, Tacitus, Plutarch, Plato, Aristotle, Epictetus, Epicurus, Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, Plotinus, and Augustine.
Prerequisite: ENG 201
ACC 201
Principles Of Accounting I
This course introduces students to the basic concepts and techniques of accounting. It deals with different aspects of measuring, classifying, summarizing, reporting, and interpreting financial information within the context of generally accepted accounting principles. Topics include: journals, ledgers, trial balances, worksheets, cash control, bank reconciliation, payables and preparation of financial statements for a sole proprietorship.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
BIO210H
Cells & Molecules
This course deals with cells and their molecules. Its main goal is to provide knowledge on the basics of the cell structure and function, with emphasis on the evolution and chemistry of the cell, membranes, organelles and cytoskeleton, cell signaling and regulation, and the flow of genetic information.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
BIO 213
Introduction To Physiology
This is an introductory course to Medical Physiology. Its objective is to offer to the student a general introduction into the basic aspects of physiology. The material covered in the course can be used as stand-alone, or to lead on to more detailed studies of physiology. The course will take a largely systemic approach to the study of the human body. Emphasis is on the function, regulation and integration of organs and organ systems of higher animals emphasizing human physiology.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
BIO213L
Introduction To Physiology Laboratory
This course consists of a set of exercises accompanied by experiments, models and computer simulations designed to provide students with a better understanding of the structure and function of the human body.
Prerequisite: Co. BIO 213
BIO220H
Cytology & Histology
The Histology and Cytology course presents a review of cellular organization and normal histology of various human organs, techniques of tissue handling, preparation of sections or smears and staining material.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
BIO 310
Introduction To Microbiology
This course presents the basic principles of medical microbiology. It includes bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic classifications, structure, metabolism, genetics, regulatory mechanisms, growth and replication. General principles of pathogenicity, epidemiology, mechanisms of antimicrobial therapy, sterilization, disinfections and antisepsis, and laboratory diagnosis are also emphasized.
Prerequisite: BIO210H
BIO 420
General Pathology
This course is designed to provide the student with instructions in the structure of the immune system: Immunity, inflammation and infection, diagnosing and understanding the physiopathology of general and systemic diseases that could affect the eye: Diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, immune system disorders.
Prerequisite: BIO 213 & BIO 220H
CHE 200
Introduction to Chemistry
An introductory course to the fundamental principles of inorganic and organic chemistry. Topics include: stoichiometry, atomic structure, chemical bonding, molecular geometry, introduction to organic chemistry, periodic properties of elements, states of matter and solution chemistry.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
CHE 301
Organic Chemistry for Health Sciences
CHE 301 is an introductory course in biochemistry. Its objective is to offer to the student a firsthand description of the principles and practices of biochemistry. Students will be exposed to the basic structures of major classes of biologically important molecules and metabolic activities of major importance in living organisms.
Prerequisite: CHE 200
OPT 201
Optics I
This course is designed to provide the student with the basic knowledge and principles of geometrical optics. Topics to be discussed include basic principles of geometrical optics, reflection at plane surfaces, refraction at plane and spherical surfaces, thick and thin lenses, aspherical mirrors and aberrations.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
OPT 210
Ocular Anatomy
Designed to provide the student with theoretical knowledge in the anatomy of the ocular cavity, orbit, muscles and eye structures. Topics to be discussed include Macroscopic and Microscopic anatomy of the structures and different layers of the cornea, iris, ciliary body, vitreous, retina and muscles of the eyes.
Prerequisite: ENG 001
OPT 215
Ocular Physiology
This course covers the physiology of the eye, and the understanding of its major mechanisms. The student will learn the principles of light perception at the retinal level, the secretion of the aqueous humour and its elimination through trabecular meshwork, accommodation, lacrimal secretion and transmission of visual information from the retina to the brain through the optical pathways
Prerequisite: ENG 001
OPT 222
Technology of Ophthalmic Lenses I
This course will cover the physical characteristics and biological compatibility of frame materials, specification and nomenclature of spectacle frame components, optical and spectacle frame consideration of high-powered lenses, physical characteristics of ophthalmic lenses and edgers used in lens fitting. Writing and transposing lens prescriptions.
Prerequisite: OPT 210, Co. OPT222L
OPT222L
Dispensing Laboratory I
Application and integration of theory and technical skills in: Assembling, dismantling and manipulation of spectacle frames, designing a spectacle frame with a wire, frame components, how to cut manually ophthalmic lenses. Transposition of spectacle prescriptions.
Prerequisite: Co. OPT 222
OPT 298
Practicum I: Internship in Optics showrooms and workshops
Four weeks of supervised experience in optics showrooms and workshops.
Prerequisite: NONE
OPT 302
Optics II
The course deals with the transmission of light, optical waves and optical instruments. Topics will cover also the theory of light as electromagnetic wave, wave equation, image formation, quantum theory, polarization, magnifying lenses, microscopes, telescopes and cameras.
Prerequisite: OPT 201 & OPT 301
OPT 322
Technology OF Ophthalmic Lenses II
This course will cover the following topics: Ophthalmic and optical instruments (Lensometer), optical characteristics of ophthalmic lenses (spherical, sphero-cylindrical, toric and astigmatic lenses), power and thickness of lenses and multifocal lenses. Ophthalmic prisms and prismatic effects of lenses.
Prerequisite: OPT 222, Co. OPT322L
OPT322L
Dispensing Laboratory II
Application and integration of theory and technical skills in: the use of the hand edger, how to manipulate manual edger and how to use edger to cut ophthalmic lenses. How to use the lensometer, how to use and manipulate spherical and toric ophthalmic lenses. Calculation of lens thickness.
Prerequisite: OPT222L & OPT 222, Co. OPT 322
OPT 330
Introduction To Contact Lenses
This course is designed to introduce the student to the Contact Lens field allowing to understand the different materials and composition of contact lenses. Manufacturing techniques, physical properties and oxygen transmission through the contact lens materials. Topics will cover also the tear film physiology and corneal biophysics.
Prerequisite: OPT 210
OPT 340
Contact Lenses
This course covers the topics concerning the slit-lamp functions, corneal measurements, importance of tear film in contact lens fitting, preliminary examination, indications and contra-indications for contact lenses, contact lens verification. The student will be able, by the end of this course, to choose the right contact lens for the right patient.
Prerequisite: OPT 210 & OPT 330
OPT340L
Contact Lenses Laboratory
Application and integration of theory and technical skills in: Patient examination, history and questionnaire techniques. How to manipulate and use the Keratometers, the use of the Slit-Lamp (different illumination techniques).
Prerequisite: OPT 210 & OPT 330
OPT 350
Introduction To Optometry
This course covers the basic Optical principles of the Human Eye. The concept of Emmetropia will be developed allowing an Introduction to the different aspects of Ametropia. Various Eye Movements will be discussed introducing normal Binocular Vision.
Prerequisite: OPT 210
OPT 398
Practicum II: Internship in Contact Lenses workshops
Twelve weeks of supervised experience in contact lenses workshops.
Prerequisite: NONE
OPT 410
Optical Instrumentation
This course will enable the student to understand the mechanism of light transmission and image formation through Ophthalmic and optical instruments including: Lensometers, Keratometers, Slit-Lamps, Microscopes, Auto-Refractometer, Magnifiers and other instruments used in Ophthalmic dispensing, refraction and contact lens fitting.
Prerequisite: OPT 201 & OPT 302
OPT410L
Optical Instrumentation Laboratory
Application and integration of theory and technical skills in Ophthalmic and optical instruments including: Lens meters, Keratometers, Slit-Lamps, Microscopes, Auto-refractometer, Magnifiers and other instruments used in Ophthalmic dispensing, refraction and contact lens fitting.
Prerequisite: OPT 201 & OPT 302
OPT 422
Technology of Ophthalmic Lenses III
This course will cover the following: Progressive and multifocal lenses, measurements and solving problems, spectacle magnification, polarized lenses, low vision, methods of remedying reflections, scratches and secondary images, absorptive lenses and special equipment. Dispensing approach (Face physiognomy).
Prerequisite: OPT 322 OR OPT 320, Co.422L
OPT422L
Dispensing Laboratory III
Application and integration of theory and technical skills in: The use and manipulation of progressive and multifocal lenses, application of prisms in spectacle prescriptions. Understand and avoid the prismatic effect of ophthalmic lenses. Special treatment of ophthalmic lenses: tinting (different grades of tint) and coatings (scratch-resistant and anti-reflection).
Prerequisite: OPT322L & OPT 322, Co. OPT 422
OPT 450
Optometry
A Clinical study of different types of main Refractive Errors: Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism and Presbyopia. Clinical aspects of Binocular Vision anomalies and their Investigation will be developed in this course.
Prerequisite: OPT 350
OPT450L
Optometry Laboratory
Application and integration of theory and technical skills in: Optotypes, Keratometry, Refraction tests, Patient history record, basic Refractive Examination and different refraction control tests.
Prerequisite: OPT 350
OPT 462
Introduction to Physiological Optics
This course will introduce the student to the ocular neurophysiology and visual perception. Topics cover the visual pathways, visual optics including: Light perception, visual perception, Gestalt theory, space perception, motion perception, temporal perception, motion perception and the measurement of thresholds with absolute sensitivity and night blindness. The student will learn also the methods of limits, adjustment and constant stimuli.
Prerequisite: OPT 210 & OPT 215
OPT 472
Physiological Optics
Continuation of Introduction to Physiological Optics, this course covers the visual perception: Schematic eye models, dioptrics of the eye, radiation and the eye and the quality of the retinal image. Contrast sensitivity, color vision perception, electrophysiological tests (ERG, EOG), visual field concept and test.
Prerequisite: OPT 462
OPT 480
Binocular Vision
This course covers Basic Principles and Concepts of binocular vision, stereoscopy, three dimensional vision as well as the different tests used to control and measure the binocular vision.
Prerequisite: OPT 350 & OPT 450
OPT 490
Process of Research
This course is designed to familiarize students with research and scientific reporting techniques. Students will learn how to obtain information regarding a specific subject using various resources, rate the obtained results in terms of credibility and report their findings including citation of references in a standard format. Students will also learn how to prepare to present their results in a PowerPoint or poster format.
Prerequisite: ENG 202
OPT 492
Special Topics in Optics & Optometry
Students will attend seminars by resident and visiting faculty members on and off campus and prepare summary reports of each seminar attended. In addition, each student will present a report of a selected topic.
Prerequisite: Senior Standing
OPT 498
Practicum III: Internship in Ophtalomology Centers
Twelve weeks of supervised experience in Ophthalmology centers
Prerequisite: Senior Standing

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